Thursday, 31 March 2011

Insurance Series (For B.COM)

         The following are the advantage available to different groups.
1.       Advantages to public
The general public enjoys the following advantages from the insurance:
a).       Saving:
Life insurance is a means of saving. It persuades the policyholder to save money. The people make the arrangements for the premium even reducing their expenses to avoid the lapse of insurance policy .In this way, the saving leads toward large amount, which can be used for personal purpose.
b).     Financial Support:
Life insurance is a good means to make provision for the old age. The amount received from insurance company will be helpful to support him and his family.
c)      Availability of loans:
The life insurance policy can be used as security against loan. The people can get the loans from the banks and insurance companies against the security of life insurance policies. The value of security increase with payment of premium .The insurance company and the insured determine the value and the lender is informed.
d).    Safety:
The life insurance provides safety against economic difficulties to the family. If the insured person dies, the dependent will get amount from the company 
2.    Advantage to the businessmen        
The following advantages are as follow.
a).   Safety:
 The fire and marine insurance provide safety against the risk of marine and fire losses. The workmen’s compensation insurance provides sum assured to the worker on accident. The businessmen can even make up of their losses by insurance. Thus the provide safety against different kind of risk in business.
b).    Availability of loans:
 The businessmen can need money for expansion and improvement of their business. To get the loan the businessmen have to give guarantee to the bank. They can use their insurance policies as security to take loan from bank.
3).   Advantage to the community
 The following advantages are as follow,
a).  Availability of funds
Funds are required to provide facilities to the community. Insurance companies generate fund. These funds san be used to reduce the problem of people.
b).    Development of country 
The insurance companies help in the economic development of country. The insurance companies collect premium and invest the funds in purchasing shares and debenture of companies. Thus they help in industrial and economic progress of the country.
c).    Employment
 The insurance companies provide employment to people. The values are employed to calculate the premium and loss. The people get job as salesmen and sales officers. The insurance companies invest funds in different companies and create jobs in these companies indirectly.

d).   Other Benefits
Insurance has created a sense of confidence regarding future. The insurance companies spend money on medical research, health services causes of fire road accidents, to inform the public to reduce the risk of loss. The insurance companies thus render a great service to the community.
4    Advantage to the Government
The insurance companies invest their funds in government securities and the government gets sufficient loans easily. The insurance companies also earn foreign exchange by doing insurance business in foreign countries.

Tuesday, 29 March 2011

Health Series (For madical Students)

Treatment Choices
If a person is told that he has cancer, even if it is a small slow growing one, it may cause a lot of worry and stress. He may insist on having it removed. Or his doctor may urge him or recommend that it be removed or treated. The doctor may be overly cautious and might worry that he could be sued later if the cancer proves dangerous and kills the man. Or the doctor may need to pay some bills. You may not believe this but there are a few unethica1 doctors who don't hesitate to do operations that may not be absolutely necessary. An unnecessary prostatectomy or radiation performed on a small slow growing or indolent tumor may cause more damage to the person than the cancer. It is a major operation that can be quite traumatic and will have a serious impact on his quality of life.
If the doctor is not an expert at removing the prostate, it can leave the patient with urinary incontinence and sexual impotence. However, even if the person is impotent and cannot get an erection, he may still be able to have orgasms. (We will have more about this phase of the operation later.) Once a person has had a prostatectomy, it will affect his quality of life for the rest of his life. But if the operation is done properly and early enough, the person may live longer than a person who has never had cancer. The reason for a longer life is that the person may start taking better care of himself.
If the cancer is fairly small, at A or B stage and the biopsy shows a low Gleason grade, the doctor may recommend that the tumor just be closely watched and monitored. If there is any change in the PSA or the other prostate tests, then treatment can be instituted immediately.
If the person is over 75 years old, and the cancer seems to be growing fairly slow, the doctor may also recommend that it just be watched and closely monitored. If it appears that the patient has less than ten years to live, most doctors will not recommend a prostatectomy. Instead the patient may be given hormone therapy, cryosurgery or irradiation.
You should always remember though, no matter what the doctor recommends, it is your body, your disease and your choice of treatments. Of course, you should take into consideration that the doctor should know more than you do. But if you ask ten doctors what the best treatment would be, you would probably get ten different answers. You must endeavor to learn all you can, then make the decision. Later in this book, there are separate chapters on the major treatments that can help you make a decision.
In Greek mythology, Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love, sprang fully grown and mature at birth. Unlike Aphrodite, cancer starts from a single cell and grows. Your cancer is not going to kill you overnight. It may have taken 20 year to become significant enough to be detected. You have a bit of time to do your study. Don't let anyone rush you into a treatment that you may regret later.
The most important part of your decision is choosing the best doctor.
Cancer is not Contagious
Cancer may cause some people to avoid or shun a cancer victim or to be afraid of them. But cancer is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted to another person. Cancer is nothing more than a few of the body's own cells that have begun to multiply abnormally. Cancer can only derive from the cells in your body.
Cancer and Pain
Some cancers can be terribly painful, disabling and traumatic, not only to the person who has it, but to the whole family. If a close friend or relative is suffering, you may also suffer right along with them.
If the cancer is causing a lot of pain, there are several things that a doctor can do to alleviate the pain. Sometimes radiation will help. Sometimes it may be necessary to use morphine and other strong pain killers.
Often metastatic prostate cancer spreads to the bones and causes great pain. A radioactive isotope strontium 89 can often relieve the pain. Novantrone is fairly good at relieving pain caused by metastases.
There are some cancers that cause no pain or alarm at all until they have spread and metastasized. Since they cause no pain or alarm to the body, it is often difficult to find them before it is too late to properly treat them.
Some Cancer Signs
Here are some signs that should cause suspicion of cancer in men, women or children: Any increased skin pigmentation, a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding, a thickening or a lump in the breast or anywhere in the body, indigestion or difficult in swallowing, rectal bleeding, a change in the bowel habits that persists, shortness of breath, fatigue, change in a wart or mole, bone pain, frequent urination, and decreased urinary stream. Older men who have to frequently get up at night (nocturia) and who have a small stream, should definitely get a checkup
Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have cancer. Or you may have none of the above symptoms and still have cancer. It can be a silent killer. But it is very easy to have get checked out. We will say it again and again. If the cancer is found early enough, it can be cured. The answer to cancer is early detection.
Risk Factors
One other thing that should make you very cancer conscious is whether you have any close blood relatives that have had cancer of any kind. Statistics indicate that there is a hereditary and genetic factor involved in many cases. So be especially wary if there has been any kind of cancer history in your family. If you have a grandfather, father or brother who has had prostate cancer, then you share their oncogenes and you are at greater risk. You should make sure that you are checked at least once a year.
Cancer And You
There are several types of cancer and life threatening diseases that are preventable such as lung cancer in those who smoke, cirrhosis of the liver in alcoholics and AIDS in homosexuals. These diseases are often due to the person's lifestyle. It is their choice.
A recent study showed that one out of every eight heterosexual women will get cancer during their lifetime. The same study showed that one out of every three lesbians will get cancer. It is thought that the difference is due to the lesbian lifestyle. They usually drink, smoke and use more drugs than the heterosexual woman. In other words, they act a lot like some men.
It appears that prostate cancer may be caused by some sort of environmental factor and perhaps diet. A recent study done by Dr. Edward Giovannucci at Harvard Medical School seems indicate that fats from red meats are a contributing factor in prostate cancer. Animal fats are also highly suspect as a factor in breast cancer development.
In Japan clinical stage prostate cancer is very low. But if they come to the United States, their rate is about the same as for Caucasians. When autopsies are done on Japanese men in Japan they find about the same rate of undetected prostate cancer as that of American men. Because of the crowded conditions in Japan, they have very little land on which to grow cattle. Most meat is imported and is very expensive. So most families eat very little meat.
At this time we know of no sure way to prevent prostate cancer, breast cancer and several other cancers. Since there seems to be nothing we can do to prevent most cancers, we shouldn't feel guilty or depressed when we get it. We should only feel guilty if we do not take steps to detect it before it has a chance to spread.
We do know that there is one thing that does not cause prostate cancer. That is sex. Even overindulgence in sex acts of any kind or masturbation does not cause prostate cancer. This is one area where you can't get too much of a good thing.
Cancer Research
Animals and plants are also made up of cells very much like those of your body. You may not be surprised to learn that forms of cancer affects the cells of animals and plants in much the same way that humans are affected. Much of whet we have learned about cancer has been made possible because of studies using animals. Regretfully, a few animals have been sacrificed in these studies. But many people are alive today because of animal studies. All life is precious. The sacrifice of a few animals has taught us things that can help preserve and save lives. Even animal lives.
There are some fantastic advances being made in some types of cancer research, especially in the gene splicing field. But a lot more could be done if more money was spent on cancer research.
The Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress submits reports of health and research spending to Congress annually.
Here is part of a report, dated March 9,1995. The report is titled AIDS and Other Diseases: Selected Federal Spending and Mortality Statistics. The report was submitted by Judith A. Johnson, Specialist in Life Sciences. (Figures cited are in millions).

Heart disease
$ 696
$ 739
$ 759
$ 785
$ 809
$ 834
$ 278
$ 295
$ 303
$ 325
$ 338
$ 347

Causes of deaths 1991
Heart disease
The death statistics have gone up a bit since 1991, but proportionately, they are still the same. It doesn't seem fair that the AIDS people get so much more Federal money than any other group.
You can request your own copy of the Congressional Research Service Reports, but the CRS will not send them to you. You have to ask your Senator or Congressman for them. Call your Senator or Congressman at (202) 224­3121. Or write to your Senator at the Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. 20510, or House Office Building, Washington, D.C. 20515.
Note how the money for AIDS has gone up each year so that now AIDS gets more money for research than any of the other diseases. About 50,000 people died from AIDS in 1996, over 550,000 died from all types of cancer and over 760,000 died from heart disease. This certainly proves one thing very clearly, it pays to be organized. Cancer and heart disease patients should adopt the same lobbying tactics used by the Gay Rights activists .
Cancer Affects Us All
There are very few people in this world who have not been affected by cancer, one way or another. Ask almost any one and they will tell you that a close relative or friend has had it. Or maybe they have had it themselves.
Cancer can be very expensive. It can easily devour a family's entire life savings in a very short time. This is one more good reason why the entire nation should have some sort of health insurance that covers catastrophic type illnesses.
Causes of death
Ordinarily cancer cells alone do not cause death. The body is a fantastic machine. It is also very adaptable and can survive and overcome unbelievable traumas and injuries.
I still have most of my textbooks that I used while studying Chiropractic. One of them is a fifth edition of Boyd's Textbook of Pathology, published in 1947 by Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. The following is quoted from this book, page 14:
"... disease is not a state; it is rather a process ever changing in its manifestations, a process which may end in recovery or in death, which may be acute and fulminating in its manifestations, or which may represent the slow aging of the tissues brought about by the sharp tooth of time.... (a) lesion (may have) been present during many years of life, and its presence is not sufficient to explain the final end....the pathologist has to try to explain not only why the patient died but how he was able to live". As Boycott remarks (Lancet, 1933, 2 846 ) "I do not wonder that people die; that is easy enough. What I marvel at is that they go on riving with bodies so maimed, so disordered and worn out"".
One factor that makes prostate cancer so life threatening is that it affects mostly older men. The "sharp tooth" of time has dulled and weakened their normal body defenses. Thus they may be more susceptible, and less immune, to the many lesser infections and opportunistic diseases.
Unless the cancer destroys a vital organ such as the brain, lungs or heart, it does not directly kill the host. It can kill by cachexia (kakos is Greek for bad, hexis means condition). Cachexia is a state of ill health, malnutrition and wasting. Many cancer patients lose their appetite which causes malnutrition. We mentioned earlier that tumors are believed to produce factors that cause angiogenesis, or the development of new blood vessels. Some believe that the tumors also produce factors that cause cachexia.
When prostate and breast cancers metastasize, the cells often set up new colonies in the bones of the vertebrae. The bones may become eroded. The calcium from the eroded bones may be taken up by the blood stream. The body must have a certain amount of calcium. But if there is too much in the blood stream, it may cause hypercalcemia.
Hypercalcemia may cause a change in mental alertness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, excessive thirst, frequent urination, muscle weakness and a diminished muscle reflex. Kidney failure is common. Hypercalcemia is very serious and is associated with a high mortality rate. Prostate cancer may also cause blood coagulation problems.

Monday, 28 March 2011

The Nature of Insurance (For B.Com )

The law of insurance is contained in the Insurance Ordinance 2000. It extends to the whole of Pakistan. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan will implement this law.

What is the definition of insurance?
Insurance is a means to spread the loss caused by particular risk over a number of people against some amount called premium.
Insurance creates a fund under which many persons contribute some money called the premium out of which the persons who suffer losses are compensated.
Definition of Contract of Insurance
A contract of insurance is a contract in which one party undertakes against premium to pay to the other party a certain amount on the happening of a certain event.
A contract of insurance is a conditional contract. The general principles of the law of contract apply to it. It is a valid contract. It comes into existence by the offer in the form of proposal and its acceptance. The object of the contract must not be immoral or illegal.
1.    Insurance
The party which promises to pay a certain sum of money to the other party is called the insurer (Insurance Company).
2.   Insured
The party to whom a certain some of money is paid is called the insured (policy-holder).
3.   Policy
The document containing the terms and conditions of the contract of insurance is called a policy.
4.   Premium
The consideration, which the insured has to pay to the insurer for the protection given to him is called premium.
5.   Policy Amount
The amount for which a policy is issued is known as policy amount.
6.   Subject matter
The thing property insured is called the subject matter of insurance.
What are the principles of insurance?
The following are the principles of contract of insurance.
1.   Utmost Good Faith
This contract requires utmost good faith on the part of both the parties to the contract. It is the duty of the insured to provide full information about the subject matter of the contract to the company. Similarly, the insurance company must disclose all necessary facts relating to the insurance contract. If the party fails to provide full information to each other, the contract is not enforceable in a court of law.
2.   Insurable Interest
It is essential for the insurance contract that the insurance should have insurance interest (monetary interest) in the subject matter of insurance. A person has an insurable interest in the subject-matter insured when he goes monetary benefit from its existence or suffers loss from its destruction. Insurance contract without insurable interest is void.
3.   Indemnity
All insurance contracts are contract of indemnity except of life insurance. In case of marine and fire insurance, the insured can recover only actual loss not exceeding the amount of policy. If there is no loss, the insurer is insurer of not liable.
But, in life insurance this principle does not apply because in case of death of insured the loss cannot be ascertained in monetary forms.
4.   Immediate Cause
It means that the insured can recover the loss only if it is caused by the risks insured against. The insurer is liable only for those losses caused by the risks insured against. To make the insurer liable for a loss, the immediate cause is considered. The insurer is not liable for remote causes. If there are two or more causes for damage to the property, the insurer considers the last cause of damages. The possible causes of damages are in the insurance policy.
5.   Subrogation
According to this principle, the insurer can recover the actual amount of loss. In case the loss occurs without any fault of third person, the insured can recover the loss from insurer only. But, if the loss occurs due to the negligence of third party, the insured can recover the loss from the insurer or the third party. If the insured recovers the loss from the insurer, then all the rights of insured against the third party will transfer to the insurer. The insurance company will recover the loss from the party responsible for loss.
6.   Contribution
This principle also applies in fire and marine insurances. According to this principle, in case of double insurance, all insurers must share the burden of payment proportionately. If an insurer pays more than his share of the loss, he can recover the excess from his co-insurers.
7.   Reduction of loss
In the event of some mishap to the insured property, the insured must take all necessary steps to reduce the loss. If he does not do so, the insurer can avoid the payment. In short, he must do his best but not at the risk of his life.
Reinsurance And Double Insurance
Something an insurance company accepts a very big risk. It may be difficult for it to beat the whole risk. Thus, the company gets insured a part of the risk with another insurance company. This is called reinsurance.
Double insurance is the insurance by more than one company. When a person gets his life insured by different companies he can receive the sum assured from all of them on maturity, But in marine or fire insurance all companies will pay the actual loss to the insured.
Assurance And Insurance
Both words are used for insurance. The word assurance is used for such insurance in which the event must take place. The word insurance is used for contract of indemnity. The word assurance is used for life insurance and insurance for marine and fire insurance.

Saturday, 26 March 2011

How Cancer May Start ?

How Cancer May Start ?
Our bodies are made up of several hundred trillion separate individual living cells. (A trillion is 1,000,000,000,000). Most of the cells are so small that thousands of them could fit in the space occupied by the period at the end of this sentence. Examples of cells are the skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells and others. These various cells form tissues, glands, organs and systems. Each cell, gland and organ has a purpose and a function. They all work together to form a complete system that sustains us and keeps us alive. All of these different cells are derived from the first complete cell that was formed from the sperm and the ovum. The sperm and the ovum each contributed 23 chromosomes to make the complete cell with 46 chromosomes. Each of the cells in our bodies, whether prostate, liver or lung each have copies of the original 46 chromosomes.
Occasionally some of the cells wear out, are damaged, or for some reason die off. Even the cells in a young baby may wear out or become damaged. Sometimes a large number of cells are killed off or attacked by an infectious or harmful agent. Our bodies are marvelous machines and we have several defenses. Unless the damage or the attack is overwhelming, we can usually overcome the injury and recover our health.
In most instances, the cells that are killed off or damaged are replaced by nearby cells. A nearby cell of the same type as those damaged or killed off, will simply split in half and become two cells. The normal cells will continue to divide and multiply until the damage is repaired then stop reproducing.
Occasionally something may happen to cause one of these reproducing cells not to divide exactly in half. A daughter cell may not get exactly half of the chromosomes. Or the chromosomes may be damaged in some way. The resulting cells are no longer like any of the normal cells in our body. The body may recognize some of these aberrant cells and destroy them. Unfortunately, some of them may not be recognized and they begin dividing and creating more and more of the abnormal cells. The body stops the reproduction of the normal cell when they are no longer needed. But it has no control at all over the abnormal cancer cell growth. The cancer cells do not perform any useful function. They contribute nothing to the system. They take more than their share of nutrition, often robbing the neighboring hard working cells of their nutrition. They are parasites that often grow so large that they squeeze the neighboring tissues and kill them off.
Dr. Robert A. Nagourney, an oncologist, says that we don't have cancer because the cells proliferate and grow faster than normal cells. He says that cancer cells multiply at the same rate as normal cells. The problem is that normal cells have a definite life span with programmed death. From laboratory studies, it appears that normal cells can divide about 50 times before they die. At the end of some chromosomes, there is a section called the telomere (telos is Greek for end, meres is part). It appears from some studies that the telomere becomes a bit shorter each time a cell divides. When the telomere decreases to a certain length, it dies from the programmed death called apoptosis. Cancer cells disregard the programmed death. Instead of living for a certain length of time, then dying off, they keep right on living and multiplying into new cells that refuse to die. They are, in effect, immortal.
In the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for Aug. 7, 1996, pg. 1021, there is a report of a conference on the Role of Telomerase. Scientists have discovered that almost all cancer cells cause an enzyme, telomerase, to be produced. Telomerase prevents the telomere from being shortened or affected when the cell divides. This appears to be what makes the cancer cell immortal.
Scientists have found telomerase present in 90% of all cancers. They hope that the presence of telomerase can be used as a marker for early detection of cancers. It might also be used to determine the aggressiveness of cancers.
Cancer Growth
An excellent book on cancer is titled Everyone's Guide to Cancer Therapy, published by Somerville House Books. It was written by Greg Cable, Dr. Malin Dollinger and Dr. Ernest Rosenbaum. I recommend it to anyone, whether or not you have cancer. On page two of their book they show the transformation of a single cell into one million cells which would be undetectable. Remember the doubling of the penny, over one million cells would be created after only 20 doublings. After 30 doublings, the tumor would have over one billion cells and could be detected as a lump. After it has doubled 40 times, the tumor would have about 1,099,511,627,780 or one trillion, 99 billion, 511 million, 627 thousand and 780 cells. The tumor would weigh about two pounds.
Depending on the type of cancer, its location and how aggressive it is, it may take years for it to double 20 or 30 times and reach a size to where it can be detected. During this time, it may not cause any pain or alarm to the body. A tumor may only cause pain or dysfunction if it is located in or near a vital organ. In this case its presence may be detected before it has doubled more than 30 times. Frequently though, when it is located in a vital organ, such as a brain tumor, even though it may not be very large, it can be deadly by the time it is discovered.
Over 100 Different forms of cancer
One reason it is difficult to find cancer before it has spread is that cancer is not a single disease. Over 100 different forms of cancer have been identified. Cancer can arise in any of the cells, tissues, glands or organs of the body.
Another difficulty is that no one is immune to it. Different forms of it can strike anyone, rich or poor, young or old, male or female.
Cancers usually arise at a primary site such as the prostate gland, the lungs, stomach or intestines. Cancer may remain at its original site and simply grow into a small tumor. You may have it for years and never know it. Eventually it may become a large tumor. If it is near a vital organ, it may grow to such a size that it would impact on the vital organ and cause problems. For instance, a prostate tumor that had become quite large might impact on the bladder, or restrict and close off the urinary canal.
The tumor may not grow and multiply any faster than the ordinary cells. As the cancer cells divide and multiply and the tumor becomes larger and larger, it might rob the nearby cells of their nutrition. If the normal cell does not get proper nutrition they will not be able to perform their proper function. They may starve to death.
As the cancer grows and becomes larger and larger, it might encroach on its neighbors and squeeze them to death. Blood vessels that are supposed to supply nutrition to normal cells may be squeezed so that they cannot reach the functioning cells. The lymph vessels that are supposed to remove the waste products may also be squeezed so that the cells may no longer be able to function properly.
A cancer patient needs to make sure that his or her body gets plenty of the proper nutrition every day. The patient must intake enough nutrition, not only to satisfy the greedy and voracious appetite of the cancer cells, but to also have enough left over to feed and repair the normal cells. Unfortunately, in many cases of advanced cancer, the person my lose their appetite completely. It is believed that the appetite loss is due to some factor produced by the cancer cells. The patient loses weight and may be just skin and bones when the cancer finally overwhelms and kills them.
Often the cancer will send out branches similar to the legs on a crab. These branches may infiltrate the neighboring organs and tissues. This infiltration displaces normal tissues and cells, squeezing, robbing and depriving the normal tissues of their nutrition.
Quite often the cancer begins in a gland or organ, such as the prostate, that has a capsule around it. As the cancer grows and expands, it may eventually break through the capsule. A few cancer cells can get into the blood stream or in the lymph system and move to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis.
Just like the seeds from a dandelion, wherever the cells land, they can set up a new colony. Once a cancer has metastasized, there is no cure. We can use various methods to slow it down and control it for various periods. It can be treated with drugs, radiation, and even surgery to reduce the bulk if it interferes with other organs. But there is no way that we can flush out and kill off each cancer cell once it has escaped from its original site. If there is just one cell left, it can start a new colony.
Cancer is a lot like Bermuda grass. I lived on a farm when I was young. One of our biggest problems in growing a food crop was Bermuda grass. It produces abundant seeds which blow off and start new colonies wherever they land. A cancer cell can get into the blood stream and migrate to a distant site and start a new colony.
You can plow the Bermuda grass under, but it just seems to cause it to grow even more vigorously. If cancer is operated on, the body produces substances that causes the normal cells to proliferate to heal the wound. But this substance also acts to make the cancer cells grow faster.
You can burn the field, but the roots are still there and they will come right back. If a cancer is radiated, it will come back unless every cell is killed off. Of course, when burning a field to destroy Bermuda grass, you also destroy good seeds and plants. The same thing happens when tissues are irradiated.
There are chemicals that can kill Bermuda grass. But these harsh chemicals can also kill off your food crop. We have chemotherapy procedures that can kill cancer cells, but chemotherapy will also kill normal cells.
If Bermuda grass doesn't get water a long period of time it will appear to die off, but actually it goes into a state of dormancy. If prostate cancer cells are deprived of testosterone and other androgenic hormones, it will shrink and appear to die off. But it may still be alive.
When Bermuda grass gets into farmland the land is almost ruined. If you plant corn or beans, the Bermuda grass will quickly spread and choke them off. It will take almost all of the available nutrients and leave very little for the food crop. Cancer cells do much the same thing. If cancer cells rob a vital organ of its nutrition or grows so large that it squeezes and chokes the organ then the patient will die.

Friday, 25 March 2011


Importance of carbon:
1.   Basic elements:
Carbon is the basic element of organic compounds. Due to its unique properties carbon occupies the central position in the skeleton of life.
 2.   Tetravalent:
 Carbon is tetravalent. It can react with many other known elements forming covalent bonds.
3.   Give a stable configuration
When a carbon atom combines with four atoms or radicals the four bounds are arranged symmetrically in a tetrahedron and result to give a stable configuration. The stability associated with the tetravalency of carbon atoms makes it a favorable elements for the synthesis of complicated cellular structures.
4.   C-C Bonds:
Carbon atoms can also combine mutually forming stable branched or unbranched chains or rings. This ability of carbon is responsible for the vast variety of organic compounds. C-C bonds form a skeleton of organic molecules as shoe in Fig.

Fig. Unbranched and branched chains and ring structure formed by C-C bonds.
5.   Combination with other elements:
Carbon combines commonly with other elements like H, O, N, P and S. Combination with these and other elements contributes to the large variety of organic compounds. Carbon and hydrogen bond (C-H bond) is the potential source of chemical energy for cellular activities. Carbon-oxygen association in glycosidic linkages provides stability to the complex

Wednesday, 23 March 2011

Health Note Series

Cancer Prevention (For medical students)
We still don't know all of the factors involved in the causes of cancer. Of course you need to avoid the known carcinogens. Until we fully understand the causes of cancer, it is difficult to completely prevent it. That is especially so for prostate cancer.
A dietary study of 47,000 men over a six year period, done at Harvard, was published in the Dec. 1995 Journal of the National Institute. It showed that men who eat at least ten servings a week of tomatoes or tomato based foods such as pizza and spaghetti sauce were 45% less likely to develop prostate cancer. According to this study, most Italian men should have less prostate cancer.
Some studies have linked high animal fats to breast and prostate cancer.
Testosterone levels may also be suspect in the cause of prostate cancer. The oriental men usually have a fairly low level compared to Caucasians. Black men usually have a very high level. We know that prostate cancer is dependent on testosterone. If a male is castrated early in life, he will never have prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). One of the most effective treatments for prostate cancer that has metastasized is castration. (A more euphemistic term is orchiectomy, but it means the same thing.) A less harsh treatment is to use drugs that chemically counteract androgenic hormones to bring them down to castrate level. These drugs are usually very expensive compared to orchiectomy. But most men had rather hold onto their balls because they represent manhood. Even if the testicles are nothing but a useless ornament that no one will ever see, they still want to keep them. Besides, maybe they will get lucky and their cancer will go into remission. Or someone will come up with a miracle cure.
A low level of zinc has also been cited as a possible cause of prostate cancer. Dr. L. C. Clark did a study that indicated that 200 µg or selenium per day could help prevent prostate cancer.
Testosterone levels are involved in prostate cancer. I have no idea what my level was in earlier years but at 70 years old my testosterone level was measured at 290 ng/100 ml. At age 72 it was 640 ng/100 ml. There is a lot of variation in testosterone levels, by age and even daily. The highest levels are usually in the morning.
On average, testosterone levels change with age. The highest level is from about 15 years old up to 30 years old, then it starts dropping. The levels may range from 400 ng/100 ml (nanograms per milliliter) up to 1 100 ng/1 00 ml at age 30. At age 70 it may range from 200 ng/100 ml up to about 600 ng/100 ml.
Prostate cancer is related to testosterone but it seems strange that more men get the cancer when they are older and the testosterone levels are normally decreasing. It would appear that a study should be done to determine if there is a correlation between testosterone levels and prostate cancer.
Frederica Perea, who wrote the Scientific American article mentioned above, is studying new methods of early detection of certain cancers. She looks at the genes and can detect differences that may predispose the person to cancer long before it becomes evident. But several questions have been raised similar to those raised by HIV testing for AIDS. What happens if a person is told that they have a high risk of developing cancel and he tries to buy health insurance? What happens to his employment? What will be the rules of privacy? What happens to his state of mind if he is told that he will die an early death because of cancer?
We are all different. I was a Doctor of Chiropractic. I believed in diet and nutrition. I never abused my boa, and was always well and healthy. I have taken vitamins with all of the trace elements every day for most of my adult life. I have a weight problem, so I have avoided eating fats and red meat for most of my adult life. According to the suspected causes of prostate cancer, 1 should not have got it. But again, we don't know all of the causes. And, also again, we are all different. Also remember, the first rule regarding cancer is that there are no rules.
Had I not taken care of my body, I might have gotten prostate cancer 20 years earlier.
Alternative Medicine
A word of caution. As I mentioned above, I am a strong believer in vitamins and minerals. But there are many "alternative medicine" type organizations who promote worthless products as a cure all for everything from ingrown toenails to cancer. Usually these products have not been tested or scientifically proven to have any value. The products usually come with several testimonies and perhaps endorsements from unethical doctors. These companies prey especially on cancer victims knowing that they will try anything to fight their disease. If you must use these unproven products, continue taking any prescribed medications and treatments. Do not ever rely on the unproven products unless you are participating in a scientific test.
How We Start Life
We first start life as a single cell that results from the uniting of a single sperm from the father and an egg from the mother. Neither the sperm nor the egg is a complete cell by itself. Every cell in our body has 46 chromosomes except the sperm and egg which has 23 chromosomes each. When the sperm and egg unite to form a complete cell, they will have 46 chromosomes. (Different animals and plants may have a different number of chromosomes.) The chromosomes contain the genetic materiel, inherited from each of your parents, that determines who you are and what you are.
Once the sperm and egg have united, almost immediately the single cell begins to divide and multiply. It divides into two complete cells, these two become four, the four become eight. Soon the single cell that resulted from the union of the sperm and egg becomes an embryo that has millions of cells.
To give you an idea of now cells multiply here is an old problem. It asked, "Which would you choose, to be given one million dollars outright, or to be given a single penny, then have it doubled each day for 30 days?" Without doing the simple math, many people would say they would rather have the million dollars. But if you are given one penny on the first day, then two on the second day, four on the third, and continue to double the amount each day, on the 30th day the single penny doubled each day would amount to $5,368,709.12. On the 31st day the amount would be $10,737,418.24.
The cells in the embryo may double and multiply even more often than once a day, so it is easy to understand how one cell can quickly develop into trillions. But the fast growing cells in the developing embryo are strictly regulated and controlled. After the baby is born, the cells continue to rapidly grow and multiply until the person reaches adulthood when normal growth is stopped and cells will only be produced to repair or replace damaged or worn out tissues. At this time the body will be made up of the several trillion cells.
The body is made up of several different cells, organs and tissues. All of these different cells are derived from the single cell that resulted from the fertilized egg. As the embryo grows and develops, the cells change, or differentiate, into whatever cell type is needed for a particular tissue or organ. (It is interesting to note that some plants and lower animals retain a large amount of undifferentiated cells throughout life. There are so many undifferentiated cells in some plants, such as the geranium, that all you need is a small piece of a branch to grow or clone a complete new plant. Some lizards can lose a part of their tail or a foot to a predator and the tail or foot will eventually regrow from embryonic type undifferentiated cells. If we could find out how the lower animals do this perhaps humans could do it. Studies are being done using human embryonic tissues, even though some people are protesting such studies.)
When a cancer develops, it may have several different types of cells. Some of the cancer cells may be very similar to the original prostate or whatever type of tissue it derived from. These cells would be called well differentiated. Some of the cells within the tumor may not have any resemblance at all to the original cells. These would be called poorly differentiated or undifferentiated. Between these two extremes might be some moderately differentiated cells. The process of cells becoming poorly differentiated or undifferentiated is sometimes called differentiation.
Most prostate cancers may have a mix of many different stages of differentiation. The Gleason Score for staging prostate cancer is based on the mix of the differentiation of the cells.
Ordinarily, those tumors with a large number of poorly differentiated cells are the more aggressive and dangerous. They grow faster and metastasize early. They usually have a worse prognosis than the well differentiated type tumors. But this is not always the case. There are no hard and fast rules that are etched in stone when it comes to cancer. Again, the only rule regarding cancer is that there are no rules. There are exceptions and sometimes the poorly differentiated tumor may grow no faster than a tumor that is well differentiated. And sometimes the well differentiated may become aggressive and fast growing.

Question:.    How Cancer Spreads?
Whenever cancer starts to spread, some of the metastatic cells are often stopped temporarily by lymph nodes. But the cancer cells usually don't cause enough alarm to cause the lymph nodes to stop them completely. The nodes may become overwhelmed and the cancer cells may proceed on their way to set up new colonies or tumors. In prostate cancer, quite often the new tumors are formed in the bones of the spine.
When a radical prostatectomy is performed, ordinarily, the lymph glands are examined first for cancerous cells. A microscopic examination of the lymph nodes can often reveal whether a cancer has metastasized. Sometimes a laparoscopic examination will be done before the operation. Or the surgeon will take out the lymph nodes and have a pathologist examine them immediately. If any cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes, it means that the cancer has already spread. In this case, it usually doesn't help to remove the prostate. Like the old saying, it's not much use locking the barn door after the horse has escaped. Most doctors will sew the patient back up and start him on other therapy.
How Cancer Survives
The cancer cells can spread by way of the lymph system and blood system and the several nerves that enter and leave the prostate. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) is a fairly new test that can detect cancer cells in the blood stream. At the present time when cancer is diagnosed we have no way of knowing whether it has already metastasized. Once the cancer has spread, it does no good to remove the prostate. In fact it is a major operation that is traumatic and may cause more damage than good. Because we can't recognize early metastatic disease, many men are operated on needlessly. Some of these men may appear to have been cured, but within five years, metastatic cancer may become evident in up to 20 percent or more of men who thought they were cured.
Just being able to find a cancer cell in the blood stream is no guarantee that it will be able to find a suitable place to settle down, establish a colony and grow new blood vessels.
When cancer cells begin to proliferate, they must have lots of food and nutrition. To get it requires extra blood and lymph vessels. It is believed that tumors produce a substance called angiogenic factors, (Angeion is Greek meaning vessel), that causes the body to create the extra blood and lymph vessels.
For every chemical, drug or hormone that causes an action, there is usually one that causes an opposite reaction. Scientists are trying to find and identify the tumor angiogenic factors. If these factors can be identified, isolated and chemically analyzed, then perhaps a method can be devised that would inhibit the production of the angiogenic factors. Without these factors, the cancer cells would be denied a blood supply and nutrition and would thus die.
A man who has a degree in agriculture happened to read about angiogenesis. He had done some study of fish. He wrote a book called Sharks Don't Get Cancer. He claimed that the cartilage in sharks prevents them from getting cancer. He theorized that the shark cartilage could prevent cancer. (And almost every other kind of disease known to man.) He took dried shark cartilage, ground it into a powder form, mixed it with water in a food blender, then gave it to men as an enema. Women were given the standard rectal enema and the solution was also placed in their vagina. He said in the book that the enemas were necessary because oral doses of shark cartilage would be destroyed by the digestive enzymes. But it is highly doubtful that the large molecules and particles of the ground up shark cartilage could be absorbed through the lower intestine or through the walls of the vagina.
The fact that the cartilage would be broken down and digested if taken orally did not stop several companies from manufacturing and promoting an oral capsule. Mike Wallace of the CBS 60 Minutes did a segment on Mark Lane, the author of the book. Thousands of people rushed out to buy the book and the capsules of Cartilade shark cartilage.
The October 1993 issue of the Scientific American had an article that said that sharks do get cancer. They also said that you might as well eat pig's knuckles as to take the Cartilade. There is no scientific evidence whatsoever that shark cartilage can cure anything.
We are pretty sure that taking shark cartilage cannot hurt you, except in your pocketbook. It is quite expensive. The danger lies in that people may rely on this quackery and abandon their proven drugs and treatments.
When people have cancer, they will try anything to save their lives. There are many quacks and disreputable people who will seek out cancer victims and take advantage of them.
There are about 100,000 genes in the chromosomes of each cell. The genes are carried in the DNA and are the blue print of all the characteristics that were inherited from the parents. The genes determine the eye color, the person's size and shape and all of the characteristics of a person. Some studies have indicated that a few of these genes, about 100 or so, are oncogenes, or genes that can cause cancer.
The cells of our body normally reproduce or split exactly in half when it is necessary to replace or repair nearby cells or tissues. When oncogenes are "hit" bye carcinogen, then reproduces, resulting new cells may be abnormal cancer cells. Some studies seem to indicate that it may take two or more hits to the oncogenes from carcinogens to cause cancer.

Tuesday, 22 March 2011

Cancer Research

Chapter # 1 (Notes For Medical Students) 
What Is Cancer?
Cancer is a disease. In which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth and causes to destroy adjacent tissues of body.
According to an article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute for April 17,1996, (Page 496505), there will be 1,359,000 cases of cancer, of all types, diagnosed this year. The article says that 80 percent of these cancers are preventable because they are due to four major factors: (1) Lifestyle, which includes smoking, diet and infectious agents; (2) Workplace which includes chemicals, fibers and radiation; (3) General Environmental contaminants in air, water and food; (4) Clinical and other medications and radiation. All of these factors combine with the patients age, gender, ethnicity, genetics, nutrition, immune function and any preexisting disease to cause cancer.
Frederica P. Perea wrote an article for the May 1996 issue of Scientific American Magazine titled Uncovering New Clues to Cancer Risk. She says that there are over 400 chemicals that have been shown to be carcinogenic in humans and animals. Many of these carcinogens are in our air, water, food supplies and the workplace. If we could eliminate environmental exposures, she estimates that cancer incidence could be reduced by90 percent.
There will be over 520,000 deaths due to all types of cancer this year. Most of those deaths could have been prevented if only the cancer had been detected early. The answer to cancer is early detection!.
Question:    Which are the most common cancers?
The Most Common Cancers
In 1996, there were over 240,000 cases of breast cancer detected. About 46,000 women died from it. There were 317,000 cases of prostate cancer and over 41,400 men died from it. There were over 170,000 cases of lung cancer that affected both men and women and about 150,000 deaths due to it. There were 152,000 cases of cancer of the colon and rectum that affected both men and women with 57,000 deaths due to it.
Just a few years ago, there were more incidences of diagnosed breast cancer than prostate cancer. This is probably due to the fact that there are two breasts, but only one prostate. But more men are now being made aware of prostate cancer and are concerned enough to get a check up. However there are still a large number of men who have the disease and are not aware of it. At least one man out of every ten over 50 has prostate cancer. For black men, the risk is even higher. One out of every eight black men over 50 will have prostate cancer. At this time, there are about 40 million men in the U.S. over 50. This means that there are over four million men with prostate cancer. For many of these men, the cancer will never become significant. Yet, it kills more men than the dreaded AIDS.
Before 1990, the incidence of diagnosed prostate cancer was about half what it is today. Even the number of men who died from it was much less. Before 1985, the primary method of prostate cancer diagnosis was by digital rectal exam (ORE). This is the test that the doctor does when he has you bend over and puts his gloved finger in your rectum. The prostate can be felt through the rectal wall. Today we have the prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test which is much more accurate in detecting prostate cancer. So many more cases are being diagnosed. One reason more men are dying from prostate cancer today in spite of the early diagnosis, is because fewer men are dying from heart disease, lung cancer and other diseases. Many men are now living long enough for their prostate cancer to kill them.
There is no way that we know to prevent cancers, but most of them can be easily cured if they are discovered early. Usually a breast cancer or prostate cancer that is found early is fairly inexpensive to treat and cure. But if the cancer is not found until it has spread, it can be treated, but it is incurable. It is also very expensive to treat. Doctors can offer palliative treatments to ease the pain and to try to keep the patient as comfortable as possible. In many cases, even with metastatic cancer, the patient can live a fairly good life. Of course the quality of life can never be the same. We will say it again and again, the best way to fight cancer is an early checkup and early defection.
Family Risks
We have known for some time that there is a definite familial risk among close male family members for prostate cancer. There is about the same familial risk for women who have breast cancer and close family members. A study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, May 19, 1993, page 776, indicated that close female relatives of men who have prostate cancer have a high risk of getting breast cancer. It works both ways so male relatives of women who have breast cancer have a 40% to 50% higher risk of prostate cancer. Men over 40 should have a prostate checkup at least once a year. Women over 40 should have a breast cancer checkup at least once a year.
Women are fortunate in one way in that the breast can be so easily examined. Women should learn how to do a breast self examination (BSE) and do it every month. About 80 percent of breast lumps are not cancerous, but any lump should be suspect and should be checked thoroughly.
We could probably save a lot of lives if a man could check his own prostate, but it would be rather difficult to do a digital rectal exam on himself. But there is no reason why a man's wife or significant other could not do a check. Just use a bit of KY Jelly to lubricate the anus, then put on a surgical glove and feel the prostate. It should be smooth with no hard nodules. Of course an exam such as this would not be nearly as good as the educated finger of a good urologist, but it might detect the obvious cancers.
Question:    What is the Prostate gland?

The Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. Sperm is manufactured in the testes, then during ejaculation the sperm is forced up the vas deference vessels. The seminal vesicles and the prostate gland add a gelatinous nutritive component which is mixed with the sperm as they are ejaculated.
The normal prostate gland in a young man is about the size of a chestnut and weighs about 3/4 of an ounce or 21 grams. The prostate gland continues to grow throughout life, so in an older man it may be three or four times larger than the one found in a young man. The prostate gland is located just below the bladder. The urethra, or urinary canal, passes through it.
Just as the breast is the most common site for cancer in women, the prostate is the most common cancer site in men. Many of the 370,000 new prostate cancers that will be detected this year will be insignificant and may not require anything but to be watched and monitored.
The normal prostate cells produce a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA). Normally it is a very small amount, about 2 to 4 ng/ml of blood. Because there are more cells in cancer, the PSA may go from 4 ng/ml up to well over 1000 ng/ml. The increased amount of PSA is easily detected in the blood.
In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there is an overabundant growth of normal prostate cells. These extra cells can also cause a rise in the normal PSA level, but the BPH cells rarely cause a rise above 10 ng/ml. Prostate cancer cells produce ten times more PSA per volume of tumor compared to BPH cells.
The prostate gland and cancer tests will be discussed in more detail later.
Question:    What are the terms used for cancer?
Cancer Terms:
There are several terms that you may not be familiar with. We have a comprehensive glossary in the Appendix. Here are a few of the common terms that we will be discussed.
Cancer: Cancer is the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of some of the cells in a body. About 90% of cancers are called carcinomas. Some of the others are called sarcomas, which are usually found in connective tissues; osteomas, or bone cancer; melanomas, or cancers from moles.
Tumor: Tumor is Latin, meaning a swelling. The oma in carcinoma is a Greek suffix that means tumor. So cancers may also be called tumors, but not all tumors are cancerous. Some tumors are benign growths that may not be life threatening.
We mentioned earlier that the first rule about cancer is that there are no rules. Quite often, but not always, the cancer will be a herd lump. Ordinary cells usually have spaces between them end the tissue that they form is rather soft. Many cancers are hard lumps where the cells are packed very close together.
A tumor may also be called a neoplasm. Neo is Greek for new and plasma Latin for form or mold. A neoplasm has come to mean a new and abnormal formation of tissue.
The term carcinoma is derived from the Greek karkinos which means crab. The term cancer is derived from Latin which also means crab. The ancient physicians of the Hippocratic school thought that the cancer they saw in their patients looked like a many legged crab. The grasping branches of the cancer that spread out reminded them of the claws on the crab.
Cancer is like a parasite. A parasite is an organism that lives within or upon a host. It contributes nothing to the benefit, welfare or survival of the host. Parasites may be such organisms as fleas, lice, tapeworms, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Often the parasites will become so greedy that they will suck the life right out of the host. Cancer can do the same.
As long as a cancer remains encapsulated as a tumor, it may not be much of a problem, unless it is growing on or in a vital organ such as the brain. But it becomes an incurable problem when the cells begin to spread and metastasize. The cancer may send fingers out and invade nearby tissues. Or a few cells may break away and escape in the blood stream. These cells may then set up a distant colony. If the cells came from the prostate, then it will still be prostate cancer, even if it is located in the bones of the spine.
Angiogenesis: When you think about it, setting up a distant colony is a remarkable feat. This cell, or a few cells, float around in the blood stream, then find a suitable spot and settle down. A few cells can exist for a while by diffusion of nutrition from existing blood vessels. But as they multiply they need an ever increasing and constant supply of blood to bring oxygen and food for their voracious appetites. But the lack of blood vessels is not much of a problem for the pioneer cells. They simply secrete substances that are attracted to the nearest blood vessel. The substances cause the blood vessel to break through and create a new path to the metastatic colony. This is called angiogenesis. According to a study reported in the June 1996 issue of Contemporary Urology, Drs. Campbell and Bouck say that over 40 of these angiogenesisinducing compounds have been identified. Several studies are being done to try to find ways to counteract these compounds. If a way can be found to prevent angiogenesis, cancer could be conquered.
Oncologist: A doctor who specializes in the management or treatment of cancer. Onkos is from the Greek, which means tumor or mass.
Adenocarcinoma: Adeno means gland. Since the prostate is a gland, prostate cancers are called prostatic adenocarcinomas. An adenocarcinoma could occur in any gland, such as the adrenals, the thyroid or the pancreas. A gland is usually an organ or structure that produces and secretes substances that may be used in other parts of the body.
Chromosomes: Your body is made up of several trillion very tiny cells. The cells have a central nucleus which contains the chromosomes, protoplasm and other structures. The chromosomes carry the 100,000 genes that determine the characteristics of the person. There are various numbers of chromosomes in the cells of different plants and animals. In the human, there are 23 pairs. These pairs of chromosomes are called diploid, which simply means twofold. Diploidy means that the cells have two sets of homologous chromosomes. Homologous means that they are similar, such as your two hands are similar.
Some cancer cells do not have the characteristic pairs of chromosomes. Some of them may be aneuploid, (the prefix an means without or not, eu means good), which means that the cells are not good and do not have the normal pairs of chromosomes.
A single cancerous tumor may have several different ploidy types of cells. Ploidy tests can be done on biopsied material from a tumor to determine the ploidy. Those tumors that have a high percentage of aneuploidy usually have a poor prognosis.
Carcinogens: We know that there are over 400 chemicals, toxic materials and carcinogens that contribute to the cause of cancer. For instance, we know that many people who smoke are going to die of lung cancer. But everyone is different. There are some people who smoke enough cigarettes to kill an elephant, yet they do not get cancer.
We know that radiation can cause cancer. We know that the ultraviolet rays of the sun can cause skin cancer. We know that some viruses can cause cancer. We know that injuries, constant abrading of tissues and many other things can cause it. We also know that some people are more predisposed to cancer than others. These people have inherited oncogenes (genes predisposed to cause cancer), from their parents and ancestors that put them more at risk for many types of cancer. If your parents or close blood relatives have had cancer of any sort, make sure that you have proper checkups. We will say it again and again, most cancers can be cured if detected early enough.

Monday, 21 March 2011


Question:.  What is Biochemistry? What is the significance of biochemistry?
Answer:.   Definition of Biochemistry
Biochemistry is a branch of biology which deals with the study of chemical components and the chemical process taking place in living organisms.
Significance of Biochemistry :.
A basic knowledge of biochemistry is helpful in understanding anatomy and physiology because all of the structures of an organism have biochemical organization. The processes like photosynthesis biochemical terms.
Question:.   What are the major types of chemical compounds found in the living organisms?
Answer:.       Types of chemical compounds
All living things are composed of certain chemical compounds which ate of two types:
1.      Organic Compounds
Most important organic compounds in living organisms are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
2.      Inorganic Compounds
Most important inorganic substance are water, carbon dioxide, acids bases and salts.
Question:.   Give approximate chemical composition of typical bacterial cell and mammalian cell.
Answer:.     Chemical Composition of Protoplasm
Typically an animal and a bacterial cell consist of chemicals as shown in the following table:

 Chemical Components
% total cell weight
 Bacterial cell
Mammalian cell
1.    Water
2.    Proteins
3.    Carbohydrates
4.    Lipids
5.    DNA
6.    RNA
7.    Other organic molecules (Enzymes, Hormones, Metabolites)
8.    Inorganic ions



Question:.   What is metabolism?
Answer:.     Metabolism
(1)    The survival of an organism depends upon its ability to take some chemicals from its environment and use them to make chemicals of its living matter.
(2)    Therefore, cells of every organism  are constantly taking in new substance of its living matter.
(3)    Life of an organism depends upon the ceaseless chemical activities in its cells.
(4)    The chemical activity is maintained with a high degree of organization.
(5)    All the chemical reactions taking place within a cell are collectively known as metabolism or metabolic reaction.
(6)    Metabolic processes include both anabolism and catabolism.
(7)   The reaction in which simpler substances are combined to form complex substances are called anabolism or anabolic reactions. Anabolic reaction needs energy.
(8)     Interconversion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids that occur continuously in living cells are complex of co-ordinated  catabolic and anabolic activities.
Note: Anabolism:
The reaction in which simpler substances are combined to form complex substances are called anabolism or anabolic reactions. Anabolic reactions need energy.
The reactions in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones are called catabolism or catabolic reactions. Energy is released in these reactions

Friday, 18 March 2011

Parts of Speech (Part 2)

It is always used after noun for which it is used
I, We, You, He, She, They, It
Interrogative Pronoun:
Pronouns that are used for asking questions. In other words, the pronouns which, besides standing for representing nouns, also ask questions, are called "Interrogative Pronoun"
Who, Whose, Whom, Which, What, Why, When, Where
Relative Pronoun:
These pronouns do not only stand for represent nouns, but also join sentences, hence these are called "Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns."
Who, Which, That, What
I beat the man who is drinking. I don't understand what you mean. 
The Reflexive Pronoun:
A reflexive pronoun indicates that a person or persons does/do something. These are therefore called Reflexive Pronoun.
Myself, Herself, Yourself etc
Demonstrative Pronoun:
These pronouns indicate the persons and things singly or in a separate group.
Each, Every, Either, Neither
Indefinite Pronoun:
An indefinite pronoun points or refers to a person or thing in a general and not to a particular sense.
One, None, Some, Everybody, Nobody, Someone, Something, Anything etc.
Rules of using pronouns:
Rule No 1:. The indifinite pronoun "One" should be followed by the possessive pronoun "One's" and not by the possessive pronoun "his".
Rule No 2:. A pronoun must agree in number, person or gender with the noun to which it follows.
Rule No3:.  Pronouns following the conjunctive words "Than" and "As" are used in the nominative case such as "I, We, You, He, She".
Rule No 4:.  The pronoun are not omitted after the transitive verbs that is the verbs after which the object can take place.

Monday, 14 March 2011

Book 1 (Short stories)

Book 1 Short stories (Part 1)
Specially written for intermediate student in punjab.  
Q1:    What were the feelings of the old man at the age of seventy?
Ans:    The old man wanted to work hard because he knows that his time was borrowed. He wanted to go back to the places he knew and loved.
Q2:    Why didn’t Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones hand over the boy to police?
Ans:    She did not hand over the boy to police because she wanted to make him a good boy and make him understand the difference between the right and wrong.
Q3:    Why did Della sell her hair?
Ans:    She sold her hair because she wanted to buy a good gift for Jim.
Q4:    What had the doctors told the old man? Or what was the advice the doctor gave to the old man? Or What did a doctor tell Jess’ father to do?
Ans:    Forty years ago doctor had told him not to work the length of a city black. He told him to get a taxi to take him home because of his weak heart. They also forbade him to work on his farm.
Q5:    Why did the boy look to the sky and smile?
Ans:    The boy looked at the sky and smiled because he was sure that the God Almighty will have mercy upon him.
Q6:    Write the names of Abdul Barkat’s daughters?
Ans:    He had three daughters i.e. Mehran, Zabda and Shamsun.   
Q7:    What did happen to the boy when he tried to snatch the purse of Mrs. Luella bates?
Ans:    The boy lost his balance and fell down. His legs flew up. The woman reached there and held him tightly.
Q8:    What was the behavior of the child with the doctor in the lesson “The Use of Force? Or Why did the parents rebuke her?
Ans:    The girl behaved badly with the doctor. She attacked him and threw his glasses away.
Q9:    What was the condition of the bettering family on hearing the news of war on earth?
Ans:    When they heard this news, they became much disturbed. The mother held onto her husband and daughter. Laura started to weep bitterly.
Q10:    What was the subject discussed at the club in “The Reward”?
Ans:    The subject discussed at the club was opportunity and determination.
Q11:    Why did the doctor call the sick girl by her first name?
Ans:    The doctor called the sick girl by her first name to be friendly with her.
Q12:    Why did Norma persuade her husband to agree with her ?
Ans:    Norma persuaded her husband to agree with her because she was a greedy woman and wanted to get 50000$ to improve their life style.
Q13:    Why did the old man take the steep path?
Ans:    The old man took the steep path to show his son that he is still healthy. He also wanted to check his physical fitness.
Q14:    How much dangerous a Martian virus can be?
Ans:    A Martian virus can be very dangerous. It may change their identities and surroundings.
Q15:    Why did the parents keep the sick child in the kitchen?
Ans:    Sometime, it was very damp there. So, they had kept their daughter in the kitchen because it was warm.
Q16:    Why did the quack come back to the camel-men?
Ans:    The quack came back to the camel-men to learn the right way to cure goiter.
Q17:    Why are the locusts compared with bad weather?
Ans:    The locusts are compared with bad weather because of their devastation. Bad weather is a natural calamity that destroys crops. Same is the case with the locusts.
Q18:    What should be the criterion of judgment for a person? “I Have a Dream”
Ans:    A man should be judged by the qualities of his character and not by the color of his skin. 
Q19:    What does the author like about Christmas?
Ans:    The most important thing the author like about Christmas Is that it makes everybody good and generous.
Q20:    What was the wisdom is selling the most valuable things?
Ans:    Love demands sacrifice. A love wants to see his/her beloved happy and pleased. Therefore, they sold the most valuable things.
Q21:    What was inside the carton/package?
Ans:    There was a push-button unit inside the package. A glass dome covered the button.
Q22:    Why does Harry want to go back to earth?
Ans:    Harry wanted to go back to earth because he found the Martians climate unfavorable and dangerous.
Q23:    How did Gorgios persuade his people to make his country strong?
Ans:    By telling them that they would create the post of court acrobat. He also told them this would create the post would strengthen their soldiers and they would be able to win the battles against the enemies of their country.
Q24:    What did the quack do with the old woman?
Ans:    He tied up the woman’s throat and struck the swollen part with much force.
Q25:    What was the scene in the evening amid locusts?
Ans:    The evening air was no longer black and thick but a clear blue. A few insects were whizzing about. However, trees, buildings, earth were covered with brown insects.
Q26:    What is the dream of Martin Luther King?
Ans:    The dream of Martian Luther King was to root out racial difference from the society and create equality and brotherhood among them with equal rights and freedom.
Q27:    Why did not Jim welcome Della when he stepped in?
Ans:    Jim did not welcome her because he was surprised to see her in short hair.
Q28:    What did the Mr. Steward take out from his pocket when he sat in Norma’s chair?
Ans:    Mr. Steward took out a small sealed envelope from his pocket.
Q29:    What happened in the mars five years after?
Ans:    Five years later a rocket fell out of the sky to rescue them.

Q30:    Why did woman give him ten dollars? Or How much money did the woman give the boy? Or What did the woman say to the boy? Or What advice did the lady give to the boy?(Thank you M’am)
Ans:    She gave him ten dollars to buy some blue suede shoes and advised him to behave himself in future.

Saturday, 12 March 2011

Parts of speech (part 1)

Parts of speech are as blow.
(1)Nouns  (2)Pronouns  (3)Verbs  (4)Adverbs   (5)Adjectives  (6)Prepositions  (7)Conjunctions  (8) Articles (9)Interjections
A noun identifies a person, place or a thing.
John, Aslam, Amjad, Japan, London, Pakistan, Computer,  Mobile etc.
Kinds of Noun:
(1)Common Noun   (2)Proper Noun    (3)Material Noun   (4)Collective Noun   (5)Abstract Noun
(1) Common Noun:
A common noun stands for general person, place or thing.
Girl, Man, Cat, River, School, Pen, Book etc.
(2) Proper Noun:
It stands for a particular person, place or a thing.
William, Shakespeare, Lahore, Karachi, 
(3) Material Noun:
It indicates the matter or substance out of which things are made.
Gold, Silver, Rice, Honey, Milk etc.
(4) Collective Noun:
Collective noun is a word used to define a group of objects.
Army, Nation, People, Council etc.
(5) Abstract Noun:
It is defines a specific quality, state or action of some person or a thing.
Truth, Hypocrisy, Youth, Delight, Struggle, Movement etc

Friday, 11 March 2011

Important Question (Part 3)

Q30:    How dose Kreton impress general powers?
Ans:    Kreton impresses General Power by reading his mind and telling him what he is thinking about destroying his spaceship.
Q31:    Compare and contrast the people of two planets. Or How much advanced is the civilization of Kreton than of the Earth?
Ans:    The people of the earth are very backward in science and technology as compared with the people of the other planet. The people of earth are only the initial stages.
Q32:    What did the girl do when her car ran out of gas?
Ans:    She took her flashlight and looked the car and started walking down the road.
Q33:    What is the significance of the storm in the play?
Ans:    Storm had made the play more horrible.
Q34:    What was the man dragging out of his car?
Ans:    The man was dragging out of his car a dead body of a girl.
Q35:    Why is Harry sitting in the barber’s chair?
Ans:    Harry is sitting in the barber’s chair to have a hair cut.
Q36:    What does Clay wants to put in the local newspaper?
Ans:    Clay wants to put an ad about his father’s lost in the local newspaper.
Q37:    Why does Clark Larrabee return? Or Why Clay’s father returns?
Ans:    Clark Larrabee reads the advertisement. When he knows that his family is worried, he decides to return.
Q38:    What kind of hair cut does Miss McCutcheon want?
 Ans:    Miss McCutcheon wants a poodle hair cut.
Q39:    Where does the play take place?
Ans:    The play takes place at Harry Van Dusen’s barbershop in O.K-by-the-sea.
Q40:    How much damaging is violence in life?
Ans:    Violence brings destruction. It destroys peace and order of a society. It brings sorrow and sufferings.

F.A Book 11(Heroes)

1.     Who did Mr.Somerwell teach the student of English?
2.     Who did Christopher spend his time in El Golea?
3.     How did filming start his early career?
4.     How penicillin was discovered the treatment for the cattle disease Anthrax?
5.     How did Pasteur show the way to did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for him self?
6.     What were the two problems which Mustafa Kamal faced to educate the people?
7.     Why did not Churchill do well in examination?
8.     Given an idea of the size of the Sahara?
9.     Describe how Fleming discovered Penicillin?
10.    How did Churchill do his Latin paper?
11.    How did Pasture discover the method of making Mustafa Kamal?
12.    Describe the early life of Pasture.
13.    Why did Charchill call examination an inhospitable region?
14.    How did Christopher develop interest for crossing the Sahara?
15.    Why was the use of carbolic acid abandoned?
16.    Why was the chief defect of antiseptic method?
17.    Why did Fleming say about the laboratories in Detroit?
18.    What does spontaneous generation mean?
19.    What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?
20.    When was sultanate abolished?
21.    Why did Churchill not do well in the examination?
22.    Why had Christopher’s foster mother to do with his desire to see distant place?
23.    What did the driver of the truck tell Christopher about three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert?
24.    What are antiseptics?
25.    Given two instances of patriotism?
26.    Who was the Mustafa kamal?
27.    Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa kamal with reference to the position of women.
28.    Who did Churchill perform in his entrance examination to Harrow?
29.    What do you know about Robert Christopher?
30.    Given an account of the early life of Fleming?
31.    What do you mean by spontaneous generation?
32.    Describe Mustafa Kamal economic reforms.
33.    Who did Pasteur prove that spontaneous generation was not a fact?
34.    Do you agree that Mustafa Kamal is founding of Turkey?
35.    Why did Mehmat try to regain Anatolia for himself?
36.    Why was Churchill place in the lowest division?
37.    How did Christopher develop interest for the method of Sahara?
38.    What is the method of making vaccines?
39.    Why did the Turkish people reject the treaty?
40.    Describe Mustafa Kamal economic reforms?
41.    What was the outcome of Pakistan discoveries?
42.    How did Fleming become famous?
43.    Why was Churchill afraid of examination?
45.    Why did Mehmet order Mustafa kamal to return to Istanbul?
46.    Why was Fleming not proud of his discovery?
47.    How did Mr.Somerwell teach English at Harrow?
48.    What is the difference between aseptic and antiseptic methods?
49.    What is spontaneous generation?
50.    Why did the writer like EI Golea?
51.    Describe me example of Pasteur’s patriotism.
52.    Why was Churchill admitted to Harrow despite his poor performance?
53.    What was the major problem during the warfare?
54.    Was Fleming proud of his discovery?
55.    How patriotic Pasteur was?
56.    Why Mustafa was Kamal sent to Anatolia?
57.    Why was Lysozyme was different form other problem did the French Academy offer a prize?
58.    Why was Al-Hakam?
59.    Why was Churchill name at the bottom in the school list?
60.    Why is Professor Laude Blanangernor staying in Taman asset?
61.    What was the benefit of Fleming’s achievement?
62.    Describe the Rabies disease.
63.    Describe Mustafa Kamal economic reforms.
64.    How did Christopher manage to get water tromp the well at in Abbangarit?
65.     Draw a brief character sketch of Churchill?
66.    Water is vaccines and how did Pakistan discover them?
67.    Whet was the attitude of the Turkish Government World War I?
68.    why was Mustafa Kamal sent English?
69.    What change did Mustafa bring in the field of education?
70.    What are vaccines?
71.    Why did Christopher and his companions kill the camel?
72.    What is aseptic method?
73.    Why did the plan of Mehmet fail to capture Mustafa Kamal?
74.    What are Churchill views about the entry tests?
75.    Discuss Mustafa kamal education reforms?
76.    How did Robber Christopher start his journey from Boussaada?
77.    Why does the writer prefer English to Latin and Greek?
78.    When did Fleming get a share from Legacy?
79.    What were the effects of silkworm disease?
80.    How many year did Churchill spend on taking examination.
81.    What did Churchill write on his paper?
82.    What is the location of Sahara desert?
83.    What was the most noticeable feature of the desert city, named Guardia?
84.     What are antiseptics and what is the antiseptic method?
85.    When Fleming was knighted and awarded noble prize?