Sunday, 23 October 2011

MCQ's Biology F.Sc. Part I

MCQ's Biology F.Sc. Part I 
1.    Which of the following is the characteristic of the living thing?
          A. have specific shape
             B. have regular shape
                   C. have organized body
                             D. none of the above
2.    Which of the followings includes in homeostasis?
         a. To maintain the shaped of the body
         b. To maintain the balance of the body
         c. To maintain the temperature of the body
         d. To keep the animal away from the body
3.    Your hearts starts beating before seven month of your birth. The
    study of your body at this stage comes within:
              (a) Morphology        (b) Embryology    (c) Anatomy            (d) Histology
4.    A doctor is studying the contraction and relaxation of a heart. He
    is studying:
    (a) Morphology        (b) Embryology     (c) Anatomy            (d) Histology
5.    Study of different parts of eye is called
    (a) Histology            (b) Anatomy    (c) Physiology            (d) None of these
6.    A biologist removes some bones of dinosaurs from a rock. He is
    (a) Morphology        (b) Paleontology    (c) Ecology           (d) None of these
7.    Darwin sys, “man has formed from monkey”. He talked about
    (a) Fossil            (b) Evolution    (c) Taxonomy            (d) None of these
8.    Kangaroo lives in Australia but buffaloes lives in Pakistan. The
            study of this distribution of animals is called
    (a) Ecology            (b) Environmental biology    (c) Taxonomy      (d) Zoogeography
9.    The study of structure of molecule of starch is called:
    (a) Molecular biology        (b) Biochemistry    (c) Morphology        (d) None
10.    The study of Amoeba comes with in the branch of biology:
    (a) Taxonomy            (b) Ecology    (c) Microbiology        (d) None
11.    The study of affects of pollution comes within:
    (a) Environmental biology    (b) Taxonomy     (c) Physiology             (d) Genetics
12.    The study of organisms living in lake is called:
    (a) Marine biology        (b) Taxonomy     (c) Physiology            (d) Fresh water biology
13.    The study of amount salt, temperature etc of water of sea comes
    (a) Environmental biology    (b) Taxonomy
    (c) Marine biology        (d) None of the above
14.    The study of life cycle of plasmodium comes within:
    (a) Parasitology        (b) Taxonomy
    (c) Physiology            (d) None of the above
15.    The grouping of men is:
    (a) Human biology        (b) Social biology
    (c) Biotechnology        (d) None of above
16.    The use of yeast in banking industry, and use of bacteria for
    making yogurt from milk are studied in:
    (a) Human biology        (b) Social biology
    (c) Biotechnology        (d) None of above
17.    A biologist studies all structure and functions of different parts
    of a man. His work is included in branch of biology called:
    (a) Human biology        (b) Social biology
    (c) Biotechnology        (d) None of above
18.    Biological organization means:
                a. Study of different organisms
                b. Study of different branches of biology
                c. Study of All the subjects of sciences
                d. Study of biology at different levels
19.    Trace elements are those:
                a.Which are necessary for the organisms
                    Which are present in a very small quantity in the body
Which are required in small quantity in the body.
Which do not require to body.
20.    Common bio elements are:
Calcium, phosphorus and carbon
Nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen
Calcium, copper and carbon
(a) and (b)
21.    Protoplasm is a:
    (a) second name of cell    (b) second name of cytoplasm
    (c) second name of Nucleolus(d) (b) and (c)
22.    Bioelements are those elements:
Which are eaten by the organisms
Which are formed within the organisms
Which are used in the chemical compounds in the organisms
Which are released by the organisms
23.    Which statement is not correct about biosphere:
    (a) It is present on the earth    (b) It is present in the oceans
    (c) It is present in the river    (d) It is present in the space.
24.    Ecosystem is composed of:
    (a) a community        (b) a population
    (c) a species            (d) none of the above
25.    Which of the followings is an organ system?
    (a) oesophagus        (b) Stomach
    (c) intestine            (d) All (a) and (c)
26.    Which one of the followings is an organ?
    (a) Cornea            (b) Retina
    (c) Eye                (d) Eye muscles
27.    Which of the followings is a tissue?
    (a) Heart            (b) stomach
    (c) bone            (d) Liver

28.    Skin is:
    (a) an organ            (b) a tissue
    (c) an organ system        (d) None of all
29.    ATP is a nucleotide. It is a:
    (a) Micromolecules        (b) Macromolecule
    (c) Microelement        (d) Microelement
30.    Carbon dioxide is a compound of carbon. It is:
    (a) an inorganic compound    (b) an organic compound
    (c) Both (a) and (b)        (d) none of the above
31.    Nucleus is:
    (a) an organelles        (b) Protoplasm
    (c) cytoplasm            (d) None of the above
32.    A prokaryotic cell:
has well defined nucleus   
is without nucleus and DNA
is without nucleus but DNA is present
None of above
33.    A eukaryotic cell:
    (a) Without well defined nucleus    (b) is without nucleus and DNA
    (c) is with nucleus but DNA is absent(d) has both nucleus and DNA
34.    Number of persons living in Multan is called
    (a) Population of Multan        (b) Community of Multan
    (c) Ecosystem    of Multan        (d) None of above
35.    Community of Lahore includes:
All the humans living in Lahore
All the organisms living in Lahore
All the animals living in Lahore
All the plants in Lahore.
36.    Gene frequency mean:
Number of genes present in an organism
Number of genes present in a population
Number of genes present in a community
None of above
37.    An island in an sea is a:
    (a) a population            (b) Simple community
    (c) complex community        (d) None of the above
38.    A dog kills a rabbit
    (a) Rabbit is a predator        (b) Dog is a prey
    (c) Dog is a predator            (d) Both are predator
39.    Which one of the following is a biome:
    (a) An ocean                (b) A river
    (c) Conifer forest            (d) A garden
40.    The fossils present in the older layer of a rock could be:
Ancestor of the fossils present in the younger sediments
Have equal age as that of younger sediments
Offspring of the younger sediment
None of the above
41.    The older sediments in a rock have:
Smaller amount of radioactive substance than the younger one
Larger amount of radioactive substance than the younger one
Equal amount of radioactive substance with the younger one
Do not have radioactive substance at all
42.    We are now living in:
    (a) Proterozoic era            (b) Paleozoic era
    (c) Mesozoic era            (d) Coenozoic era

43.    Phyletic lineage means:
    (a) 2000 Million years ago        (b) 3000 Million years age
    (c) 4000 Million years age        (d) 5000 Million years age
44.    Phyletic lineage means:
All the organisms have same ancestor and they show similarities.
All the organisms have different ancestor but they show certain
All the organisms have same ancestor but they do not show
None of the above
45.    Total number of species on the earth is:
    (a) 2.5 Millions            (b) 2 Millions
    (c) 3.5 Millions            (d) 1.5 Millions
46.    The most abundant group on the earth is:
    (a) Mammals                (b) Birds
    (c) Insects                (d) Reptiles
47.    Which group of the followings has lowest number of species?
    (a) Vascular plants            (b) Animals
    (c) Insects                (d) Algae, protozoa and    Prokaryotes
48.    Measurement of temperature is:
    (a) Quantitative            (b) Qualitative observation
    (c) None of the above           
49.    Mammals have hairs on their bodies. Dog also have hairs on its
    body. So dog is also a mammal. It is:
    (a) Deductive reasoning        (b) Inductive reasoning
    (c) None of the above   
50.    Inductive reason moves from:
    (a) Known towards unknown        (b) Unknown towards known
    (c) Known towards known        (d) none of the above

check your ability by matching your choice to these
1. (c)    2. (c)    3. (b)    4. (d)    5. (b)    6. (b)

7. (b)    8. (d)    9. (a)    10.(c)    11.(a)    12.(d)

13.(c)    14.(a)    15.(b)    16.(c)    17.(a)    18.(d)

19.(b)    20.(d)    21.(d)    22.(c)    23.(d)    24.(d)

25.(d)    26.(c)    27.(c)    28.(a)    29.(a)    30.(a)

31.(a)    32.(c)    33.(d)    34.(a)    35.(b)    36.(b)

37.(b)    38.(c)    39.(c)    40.(a)    41.(a)    42.(d)

43.(b)    44.(a)    45.(a)    46.(c)    47.(d)    48.(a)

49.(a)    50.(b)


Thursday, 13 October 2011

English grammar: The Use of Will have

Will have done

    We can use 'will have done' to talk about what will have been achieved by a certain moment in time.
  •         We'll have been in these offices for eight years next month.
  •         She'll have visited ten countries in twelve days by the time she gets back.
  •         I'll have finished this project by Friday.

    If we want to emphasis the continuity of the activity, we can use the continuous form.
  •          I'll have been working here for 35 years by the time I retire.
  •          She'll have been driving for more than fifteen hours straight by the time she gets here.
  •          They'll have been working with us for 15 years by the end of this year.

    We can also use 'will have done' to predict what we think has already happened at present.
  •          He'll have already read the report by now. Too late to change it.
  •          She'll have boarded her plane. It's too late to contact her.
  •          They'll have decided by now. We should hear the result today or tomorrow.

Sunday, 28 August 2011

Essay: Corruption

  • Introduction: a common phenomenon; main cause.
  • Effects of corruption on society: People, Govt, good values.
  • Factors that contribute the corruption: Seven factors.
  • Remedies: Complete change in society; Revision of pay scale, or change of Government not enough: Four steps.

Today corruption is almost a world phenomenon. It is, in fact, a universal problem, having existed in all ages, It has clung to mankind like an incurable disease, In a free and competitive society, incestment of capital can yield only reasonable returns in the long run. But corruption or acceptance o fbribes promises a rapid changes in financial conditions. Orginally the Police and P.W.D were notoriouse for corruption but now this evil has spread to almost every department of the Government. Even courts of justice and education are no exceptions.
Prevalence of corruption has created disappointment and discontent among the community. The machinery of Government gets rusted and ceases to work in the intended manner. Corruption decreases respect for law and sense of allegiance to the Government. In a society governed by corrupt officials, the whole system of moral, ethical and religious values is impaired. The distinction between right and wrong disappears. Revolutions and military take-over become common. Every student of history knows that one of the causes of the downfall of nations has been corruption. In his famous book "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"

Gibbon has stated that as long as there were even two per cent honest men in the Roman administration, the Empire lingered on.
The factors that contribute to the prevalence of corruption differ from country to country. Those that are common in most countries including Pakistan are seven. First, general economic condition of the country is poor and everyone tries to feather his nest. Second, the rates of remuneration of public functionaries are low, and they are tempted to accept bribes. Third, the general price level and the standard of living are very high: honest means of a person fail him. Fourth, social conditions and customs demand lavish expenditure of money. Fifth, there exists no strong opinion against corruption; it has been accepted as a common thing. Sixth, laws confer on the public servants vast powers and discretions, they take undue advantage of that. Lastly, there are no adequate means to prevent corruption or bring the offenders to book.
To root out corruption, a complete change of the political, social and economic system is necessary. No revision of pay scales, however liberal, can reduce corruption. The reason is that the wealth targets aimed at by corrupt officials are very high. Similarly, a mere change in Government has to rely on perment services for its day to day administration. Unless the motive for corruption is removed, corruption will continue.
Four steps, however, may be of some use. First, wide discretionary powers should be taken away from individual officials. Second, Anti-corruption Department should be made more effective. Third, the minds of the people should be changed by the prevalence of moral values. Last, the punishment for corruption should be more exemplary.  

Wednesday, 17 August 2011

Terrorist Activities in Pakistan

Terrorist Activities in Pakistan
      Causes of Terrorism:   
  Terrorist activities in Pakistan           
a.    Terrorism means the use of force, or aggression against person, groups, or governments.
b.    The aim of terrorism is to create dread and alarm in the masses.
c.    Terrorism has been an old activity.
Terrorism in Modern Age:
a.        In the modern age, terrorist groups are trained by                                                                                                                                                government, special agencies and secret services.
b.        These terrorists disrupt the normal life of every country.
How Terrorism is Committed?
a.    Now a days the terrorist use sophisticated weapons like bombs and poisonous gas to destroy the life and property of the people.
b.     In the coming century, the use of chemical and nuclear weapons by the terrorist organization cannot be ruled out.
  Causes of Terrorism:
     Terrorist acts are committed due to the following reasons:-
a.    Religious differences.
b.    To get liberation from cruel rulers.
c.    To destabilize the rival government.
   Terrorist activities in Pakistan
a.    The terrorist activities in Pakistan are backed by Indian secret services RAW and Israel’s secret services MOSSAD.
b.    The rival religious groups are aided by hostile countries.
a.    Te religious differences should be controlled by the lemmas and by the mass media.
b.    Strict security measures should be adopted.
c.    The illegal flow of arms and money should be controlled.
d.    The secret services and various agencies of Pakistan should work in-coordination with one another.
Definition: What is Terrorism?
        Terrorist means the use of force or aggression against a person, groups or governments. The aims of such a destructive activity is to create fear and alarm in the messes. Terrorism is not a modern activity. It has been going on in the world for a very long time. In the past, the societies were not organized. However in the old world, the robbers and dacoits waylaid people during their journey and robbed them of their belongings and deprived the weak of their life. But now the terrorist activity has changed. It has become an organized activity.
Terrorist in Modern age:
        In the modern age, terrorist groups have emerged which train people for the destructive activities. Now a day, the terrorist organizations are financially helped and aided by the secret services of different governments. The hostile neighbors train the terrorists and send them for the destructive activities. They create dread and alarm in the people and try to destabilize the government.
How Terrorist is committed:
        A regular terrorist organization usually works against the government. Its main object is to create disorder and anarchy in the country. The forces of law and order are weakened. The government cannot pay proper attention to build the nation and look after the welfare of its people. Most of their attention is diverted to curb the terrorists. Now a day, terrorists use modern destructive weapons to destroy the buildings, offices and public places like railway stations and airports. They implant bomb and cause a great loss to public property and life.
Causes of Terrorist:
    Terrorist acts are committed for various reasons. Some terrorist groups support a particular political philosophy. Other terrorist organizations fight against the government to get liberation on the ethnic basis. Dictators use violence to frighten or eliminate their opponents.
        In Pakistan, the terrorist activities go on in a planned and organized manner. The reasons for their activities are quite obvious. The terrorists in Pakistan create violence, commit murder, implant bombs at public places, and kidnap people for ransom due to the following reasons.
1.    In Pakistan, certain groups kill one another on the basis of religious differences. They are financially backed and aided by foreign countries and anti-Pakistan secret services like RAW and MOSSAD.
2.    The terrorist activities are committed in certain parts of Pakistan on the basis of linguistic or ethnic differences. There are political organizations which are established on the ethnic or linguistic. They murder, kill or kidnap people from the rival or opposite groups. 
3.    India has always tried to destabilize the political and economic stability of Pakistan. Its secret services RAW works in coordination with the Israel secret service MOSSAD and disrupts the normal life of the country through its agents. They create anarchy in the country by blasting bombs at different public places.
Terrorist Activities in Pakistan
        During the last many years, Pakistan has become a favorite place for the terrorist to execute their destructive activities. In the preceding year, the mosques, imam Bargahs, the places of worship and religious centers have innocent men, women and children were killed. During the year 1998, more than seventeen hundred persons had been killed in Punjab and more than five hundred citizens were killed in Karachi. The terrorist activities seem to have become the routine matter in the country.

    Terrorist needs to be checked carefully. The government should force all the people leave the country who are illegally present. It should make arrangements to shop the illegal flow of arms and money, into the country from abroad. All the secret services of Pakistan should work in coordination with one another and try their utmost to detect and identify the terrorists.

Tuesday, 16 August 2011

Careers for Women

        Careers for Women
          Careers for Girls
1.    In the past, the women were treated like slaves. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their homes.
2.    Women have proved their worth and skill in all fields of life.
3.    Shining girls can try their luck in the superior services.
4.    They can become doctors, nurses, teachers, news casters, research scholars and journalists and air hostesses.
5.    Educated women can contribute a lot to the prosperity of the country.
In the past, the women were treated like slaves. Their main profession was to obey and entertain their husband. As Ruskin puts it, A true wife, in her husband’s house is his servant; it is in his heart that she is queen. The women were confined to the kitchen and the nursery. But now things have changed. Education, T.V and newspapers have changed their outlook. They have become conscious of their rights and privileges. They have started taking part in every field of life.
Educated has entirely changed their outlook. It has polished and refined their mind. They have proved their worth and skill in every field of life.
The girls of today should also come forward and lend a helping hand to their men. Of course, there are some hard and rough duties which women may not like to perform. They can do any job which fits their ability and aptitude. There are many jobs which women could perform with great care and comfort.
First, shining and brilliant girls can try their luck in the superior services. By becoming C.S.P officers, they can serve their nation and country. A few young girls have already proved their worth as civil servants. Women like Begum Ra’ana Liaqat Ali Khan may be sent abroad as ambassadors of Pakistan.
Secondly, advertising is a field that can be filled in by girls gifted with attractive personality have already occupied the screen of T.V to display and advertise the products of different firms and manufacturing factories. They are very successfully in this field they can be given training if so required.
Thirdly, the profession of medical and nursing is greatly suitable to the genius and aptitude of women. Our country is in great need of lady doctors and nurses. In most of the villages, we do not have a single lady doctor. Our women fill shy of coming before male doctors. They cannot tell them their trouble frankly. This difficulty could be solved if we have more lady doctors.
Fourthly, in the same way, teaching is another profession which our girls can easily adopt. They are very suitable for the teaching of small children. They have motherly love for them. However, girls with high education can become lecturers and professors. In Pakistan, there are numberless woman who have proved their worth as teachers in schools, colleges and universities.
Fifthly, women with practical knowledge and enterprise can become sale girls.
There are many other professions open for girls. They can become air hostesses in some airlines. The women should come forward to do jobs which are suitable to their aptitude. In this way, they can contribute a lot to the prosperity of the country.

Sunday, 14 August 2011

Education for women

        Female Education
      Education for women
      Woman Education
1.    In this modern age, education plays an important role in cultivating the mind of both men and women.
2.    The people who oppose female education have narrow and limited minds.
3.    Education for women is necessary on many grounds.
4.    Man and woman are the two wheels of the   carriage of life. Education plays an important role in running this carriage smoothly.
5.    An education is a blessing to her husband, a good mother to her children and sincere worker to society.
6.    The development and progress of the country depend on female education.
Female education is very important for the progress of any nation. Education in the modern age has become very vital both for men and women. The progress of a country depends on literacy. If literacy rate is low in a country, it remains backward and under development. In case of Pakistan, the literacy rate is alarmingly low. People living in villages do not educate their girls. The feudal lords have a prejudice against educating their daughters. There are numberless village in Pakistan where the arrangements for the primary education of girls simply do not exist.
    No one can deny the benefits of education. It develops the inherent and latent faculties of man. Without it, a man remains in the darkness of ignorance and cannot make much progress. But it is strange that the people who are advocate of male education, want to deny this privilege to the womenfolk. This one sided and partial attitude is quite unjustified. If we examine the arguments of the critics of female education, we find that they are based on superstitions and prejudices. They argue that women are inferior to men in intelligence and so they are not fit for education. Moreover, they fear that if women are education, they will j   refuse to do domestic work. Both of their fears have been proved by the women of every country. Moreover, educated women do domestic work more skillfully than the uneducated ones.
    First, there are many benefits of educating women in all the developed countries of the world. Women play an active and important part in the life of their nation. In the last world war, they did wonderful work. This had been possible on account of their education. How can any nation progress when half of its populations women are ignorant and uneducated? An educated woman proves a better wife and better mother. She can look after the household affairs in a better way. In critical and hard times, she can come out of her home and can be of use to her family and nation.
    Secondly, an educated woman is a blessing for her home and society. She is fully aware to her duties as a citizen of the state. She understands her responsibility towards herself, her family and her country.
    Thirdly, an educated woman proves children. She can inculcated good ideas in their mind. She can make her children good citizen of the state. Uneducated mother have a simple and credulous mind. They do not have elementary medical knowledge so greatly essential for the health of their children. The mortality rate among the uneducated mothers is very alarming. Educated mothers will give the nation healthy, enlightened and decently brought up children.
     Fourthly, an educated woman can prove a sincere and loyal wife to her husband. She can easily make understanding with her husband which is very essential to the married life. She is refined cultured. In the time of trial, she can become an earning hand to her husband. We can say that female education is necessary for the economic development of our country.                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

Saturday, 13 August 2011

Student essay: Woman’s Place in Society

Student essay:    Woman’s Place in Society

1.    In the past, women did not enjoy many rights. They were expected to limit their activities to the kitchen.
2.    Now women are conscious of their rights as citizen and consider themselves equal to men in every field of life.
3.    They have proved their worth in every field of life. Now they cannot be kept as slaves in the house.
4.    She is biologically different from man. Her main function is to produce and look after children.
5.    Our religion Islam is not against the education of women. It does not forbid them from taking part in the social activities of life.
In the past, women were looked upon as slaves. Her main profession was to obey and entertain her husband. As Ruskin puts it. It is in his heart that she is queen. Up-to the 19th century, it was though that marriage and home life were the best outlets for a women’s energies. Thus a women’s activities were confined to the kitchen and they nursery. Towards the end of the 19th century, there came the revolt of women.
    Literature of 19th century made them conscious of their duties and privileges. Education more than anything else was responsible for the emancipation of women. With education came the realization that she could not do want man had done. She made a great demand for the right to vote. She succeeded in it. At present a number of women are members of the parliament. To day, women are working as typists in offices, telephone operators, teachers, doctors and want not. In Russia Japan, they were trained as soldiers to serve in the Second World War. Even in Pakistan, we have women athlete, writers, leaders and administrators.
    However, there is a group of thinkers who believe that women should not take part in the social and cultural activities of the country. They believe that men is for the sword and women for the needle, man to command and women to obey. Their judgement is based on prejudice and it is one sided. The real danger is that women are making a wrong use of their emancipation. They are trying to imitate man in everything. With the result, that they are losing their essential womanhood. They are losing sight of the fact that delicacy and modesty are two of their finest virtues. Without them, they would be simply apology for man.
 Let us discuss the problem in the light of human psychology. Woman are different from men in their bodily form and constitution. It is her sacred duty to produce children and look after them. Not only this but she has also to build a nation of morally sound people. She has to play role of a teacher for her children. The holy prophet has said Paradise line under the feet of a mother. This show that is Islam a women enjoys great status. Her rights are equal with men, but her duties are different. Napoleon once said gives me good mothers and I shall give you a good nation. This means that morally good mothers build a nation of brave and strong people.
    Islam does not prohibit women to do jobs. Women can do any job provided they do it within the framework of Islam. Women become doctors and nurses in hospitals. They can also become teachers, typists, clerk and receptionists. The women should do a job when they are actually in need of it. They should first of all look after their children and make them good citizens. However, in case of dire necessity, she can take part in the social and cultural activities.    


Tuesday, 9 August 2011

Use of Lest and should in English Grammar

 The use of LEST and SHOULD in English Grammar
Lest is a conjunction that is used in English Grammar when we want to prevent something from happening.
The following rules must be kept in mind for using Lest in English Grammar:
The use of not is prohibited after Lest because the meaning of Lest is “It happened not”
For example:
Get ready, lest we should get late.
Speak softly, lest any one should listen you.
Don’t ask him, lest he should mind.
Remind him, lest he should forget.
Don’t drive here, lest car tyre should flat.
Tail this year, lest you should plunk once again.
Don’t sit with him, lest he should spoil you.
Don’t run this risk, lest you should stuck.
Be brave, lest he should beat you up.
Don’t count on cheating, lest examiner should catch you.
Don’t blabber, lest he should get you out.
Come out of the room, lest should get annoyed.
Don’t take perish food, lest you should fall sick.

Wednesday, 20 July 2011

Important Idioms and phrasal verb

Important Idioms and phrasal verb (Part 1)
These are some Important Idioms and phrasal verbs which will help you to prepare your exam for F.A, F.Sc, B.A, B.Sc
Through Thick        I shall help you Through Thick and thin.
and thin
Stand by                I shall stand by you whatever happens.
For want of           One should not commit an immoral act  for want of money.
Give up                  He has given up smoking.
Off and on             He comes off and on to see his sick mother.
By fits and starts     He may succeed because he works by fits and starts.
Bury the hatchet       Let us bury the hatchet and be friends again.
At stone’s throw       Our school is at stone’s thrown.
At daggers drawn       The two brothers are at dagger’s drawn.
Few and far between    He comes here few and far between.
Cut a sorry figure     He did not worked hard and cut a sorry figure in the examination.
Break the news           No one have courage to break the news when her father died.
Break the ice           All were silent when I had to break the ice.
French leave           French leave is not allowed here.
A bed of roses           Life is not a bed of roses.
See off                   We saw off with a sad heart.
Come off           When does the convocation come off?
Break out            Cholera has broken out in our city.
Up to the mark            Your work is up to the mark.
To abide by           You should abide by your promise.
To nip in the bud      Nip the evil in the bud.
Rainy day           Save some money for a rainy day.
Put out            Please put out your light.
Bad blood           Ameen created the bad blood between two brothers.
To end in smoke           All of his efforts to go abroad ended in smoke.
Above board           His honesty is above board.
To make fun of           He always makes fun of others.
To get into hot water  Ameen is a corrupt officer. He will get into hot water some day.
To pass away           His father passed away yesterday.
Part and parcel           Kitchen is a part and parcel of a home.
Go back on            The politicians always go back on their words.
To be taken aback      She was taken aback to see her husband before her.
Bring in            This business will bring in money to you.
A maiden speech           He impressed the audience with his maiden speech.
A wild goose chase     Your attempt to pass will prove a wild goose chase.
Bring to book           The headmaster brought to books the teachers for students’ failure.
Better half           Uzma is my better half.
Turn over           Please turn over you paper.
Cut off                   She has cut off all his connections with me.
Bag and baggage           They were turned out bag and baggage.
For good           I have given up smoking for good.
Turn out           They were turned out bag and baggage.
In black and white     Give me every thing in black and white.
Under a cloud           A corrupt minister is always under a cloud.
A rolling stone           A rolling stone gathers no moss.
Up to date           Keep your account up to date.
Put on                   Put on your coat and come along with me.
A white elephant       Car is a white elephant for a poor man.
Hard and fast           The rules of this society are hard and fast.
Put off                   He tried to put me off with false promises.
By hook or by crook    He will pass the examination by hook or by crook.
Heart and soul           He has put heart and soul in serving his parents.
Kith and kin           He invited all his kith and kin to his wedding.
Tooth and nail           He fought a duel tooth and nail.
Bring up           His uncle brought him up.
Look for           What are you looking for?
Put down            The rebellion was put down.
Wet blanket           He is a wet blanket as he says that we might fail.
Red letter day           The 14th of August is the red letter day in the history of Pakistan.
Hand in glove            They were hand in glove with each other.
To add fuel to fire    His insulting remarks added fuel to fire.
Fall in with           We fall in with you in this matter.
To catch at a straw    A drawing man catches at a straw.
To take after           He takes after his father.
First and foremost     The first and foremost duty of a student is to study.
Take in                   Don’t take in your friends.
An Amazon           She is an Amazon.
A bad debt           You should write off the bad debt.
A sugar daddy           Although he is an old man but he is a sugar daddy.
Carry the day           We carried the day and won the match.
Face the music           Great people always face the music.
Off hand           I can speak off hand on any topic.
Get rid of           He has got rid of bad friends.
Hit upon           He hit upon a new idea.
Red handed           The police caught the murdered red handed.

Sunday, 10 July 2011

Important Essay: Science in the service of man

Science In The Service Of Man
Wonder Of Sciences
Miracles Of Science
Science and human comforts
Benefits Of Science
How Has Scientific Method Helped Us

  1. We live in an age of science. Science has made our life very comfortable.
  2. Science has added great comforts in every field of human life.
  3. It has brought a revolution in the field of traveling, medicine, surgery and engineering etc.
  4. It has made man rational and open minded.
  5. It has brought marvelous changes in our recreation.
  6. It has also changes our eating habits.
We live in an age of science. Science has entered in every field of our life. It has added many comforts to our life. The impossibilities of the past have been made possible. New miracles are happening everyday. It has given man a new sense of confidence and power. Man has conquered the forces of nature. He is not afraid of the wild animals tempests and floods. It has helped man to explore the hidden treasure on the earth. Man has now learnt to land on Moon. He is in search of new worlds. A great writer Emerson says “Science surpasses the old miracles of mythology”.
Science has brought a revolution in the matters of transportation and communication. It has shortened the distances. In the past, traveling was a difficult and dangerous matter. It took weeks and months to reach from one place to another. People bade farewell to their relatives and friends with a heavy heart, while they set out on a journey. Now the days have gone. We can now travel from one part of the world to the other in a few hours. There are rocket planes that travel at the speed of seven or eight hundred miles per hour. They travel faster than sound.
Telephone, wireless, radio, computer, Internet and television are wonderful invention of science. They connect us with the world within a twinkling of an eye. The radio and T.V are the most powerful means of information and education for us. They make a record of everything features and educational programmes enlighten and delight our minds. Its influence on men, women and children stand undefeated. The telephone and telegraph have linked one part of the world to the other. Messages are flashed. Direct conversation can be carried on. Wireless has brought the countries close together. The world has shrunk in size. It is no doubt a great serves of science.
Electricity is perhaps the most wonderful invention of science. It is used as a source of light, heat and power. With the help of power, we can now change the course of rivers, demolish the mountains and cultivate our barren lands .Without it the whole progress of industry would come to stand still .Had it not been invented .the entire world would have plunged into darkness .it moves trains and heats our rooms in winter and cools them in summer .it cools our food and irons our clothes.
It has also done wonders in the world of medicine.Treatment by X-ray and radium is one of the greatest wonders of science .Difficult surgical operations have become a routine mater .Vaccination has made small pox a thing of the past.Many other diseases lied cholera plague and T.B.Have been fully controlled .Purine has finished malaria .It has also made our social life easy and comfortable .It has given us many ways of recreation .The cinema ,radio and television have made us cheerful and comfortable.
Science has made us open minded and rational .We analyse everything before we believe it.We do not have faith in ghosts and spirits .Now –a-days science has made us practical minded.

Friday, 1 July 2011

English Grammar: The Phrase

English Grammar

The Phrase

In English Grammar a phrase is a combination or a group of words which gives a sense but not a complete sense.
•    It is a part of a sentence.
•    It does not have a subject or a predicate.
•    On the roof
•    A group of colors
•    English Grammar
•    But: I am learning English Grammar from my school.
Note: In the above sentence “English Grammar” is a phrase, which helps in making a complete sense.
Kinds/Forms of the Phrase:
1.    Adverbial Phrase
•    It does the function of an adverb
•    It does not have any subject or predicate
•    I am writing this letter in a hurry.          (“in a hurry” is an adverbial verb)
•    I hope you will work better in future.     (In future is an adverbial phrase)
2.      Prepositional Phrase:
•    It has a preposition, its object and modifier.
•    It may be used as an adjective, adverb, or a noun.
•    The boy with the long arms is one of my students.
“with the long arms” is a prepositional phrase, used as an adjective.
•    She danced with a hop.
“With a hop” is a prepositional phrase, used as an adverb.
•    After tea, it is the time to relax.
“After tea” is a prepositional phrase.
Adjective Phrase:
•    It is a group of words without subject or predicate.
•    It does the function of an adjective.
•    A man of virtues will not tell a lie.
“A man of virtues” is an adjective phrase, which does the function of an adjective.
•    The boy with a black hat is my brother.
“With a black hat” is an adjectivial phrase, which does the function of an adjective.
The Present Participle Phrase:
•    It consists of a particple (1st form of the verb + ing) and the related words.
•    It acts/works/functions as an adjective.
•    The students, practicing summary-writing, is usually an intelligent student.
“Practicing summary-writing” is a present participle phrase, which acts/works as an adjective.
•    Reaching the field, the farmer began to harvest the crop of wheat at once.
“Reaching the field” is a present participle phrase, which acts/works as an adjective.
•    Not knowing the English language, he found it impossible to get a job in England.
“Not knowing the English language” is a present participle phrase, which acts/works as an adjective.
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Tuesday, 28 June 2011

Important Essay: Co-Education

1.    Meaning and evolution of this system
2.    Arguments in favor of co-education
3.    Arguments against co-education
4.    Conclusion.

Co-education means the education of boys and girls in the same schools, colleges or universities. This is a modern concept and it has made a remarkable rapid progress. It was first introduced in Switzerland, but now it has become popular almost in all Europe and America. The Eastern countries are also adopting this system gradually. In our country opinions sharply differ on the issue of co-education in colleges.
The supporters of co-education favorite mainly on two grounds: One say that co-education is an economical measure in a poor country like Our country. It is not possible to maintain separate colleges for boys and girls. Especially in vocational colleges a lot of money is required to equip the libraries, laboratories and workshops. In the second place, the social contacts between the members of the two sexes ate useful in many respects. The supporters of co-education say that if boys and girls ate educated together, they will develop in them a sort of mutual understanding. This believes that co-education makes boys less coarse and girls less morbid. The boys become civilized and polite and the girls get rid of their shyness. Moreover, it creates a spirit of competition in studies. Both try their hard to out-do the others.
The arguments of the supporters of co-education are weighty, but those against are more weighty. Demerits of this system make its success in this country doubtful. The opponents of co-education argue that in a hot country like Our country this system is impracticable. Here boys and girls become young at an early age. Youth is blind and there is every possibility that they may fall a victim to their emotions. Then every one of us knows that ends and aims of education for the two sexes are quite different, their demands in education are different from each other and, therefore, it is false economy to teach them in the same institution. Again, in Our country, colleges are very few and they are over-crowded. Co-education can prove economical only in such saxes when the number of the students in colleges is very small. And moreover we must remember that Islam disallows free mixing of boys and girls. It is for these reasons, the opponents of co-education thinks that the system is not fit for our country. To conclude, we may say that co-education is above objection in the professional colleges where the ultimate goal of all the students is the same, but in arts and science colleges where the two sexes are prepared for the normal routine of life, co-education is unnecessary.

Sunday, 26 June 2011

Cheque, Cashbook and Bank Reconciliation statement

Cheque, Cashbook and Bank Reconciliation statement (Short Questions)
What is cheque?

A cheque is an unconditional order in writing drawn by a customer on his bank.
A cheque is an unconditional order in writing, drawn by a customer on his bank requesting to pay on demand
a certain sum of money, to a person named in the cheque, or to the bearer to the order of a stated person.
How many kinds/types of cheque?
There are three kinds of cheque:
(1) Bearer Cheque           (2) Order Cheque                      (3) Crossed Cheque
What is a bearer cheque?
A cheque on which the phrase or "bearer" is written after the name of the payee. It is payable to any one who may present it at the bank.
What is an order cheque?
A cheque on which the phrase or "order" is written after the name of payee. It is payable to a certain person or order.
What is a crossed cheque?
When two parallel lines are drawn across the face of a cheque, it is said to be crossed cheque. It cannot be en-cashed at the counter of the bank. two parallel lines are drawn on the face of the cheque of left side corner.
What is meant by dishonor of cheque?
If the bank refuses to honor the cheque due to any reason, then the cheque is called dishonor of cheque.
Sometimes there may be a mistake in writing a cheque or the amount of deposit in bank account may be less than the amount of cheque drawn. In such a case the bank will refuse to honor the cheque is called dishonor of cheque.
What is mean by endorsement of the cheque?
The holder of the cheque may transfer the cheque in favor of his creditor for clearance of his debt. This process is known as endorsement of cheque.
What is a bank draft?
Bank draft is one of the transferring money from once place to another. It is an order drawn by a bank on one of its branches requesting the later to pay the specified sum of money to the person named in the draft.
What is meant by hundis?
A hundi is exactly like a bank draft. One trading firm upon its branches drawn it.
What is a postal order?

Postal order like cheques are written order made by one post office on other. It is of small amount. It serves the same purpose as bank draft.
What is a cash amount?
Cash amount is an account ledger in which posting of only cash transactions are made from journal.
What are the different kinds of cash book?
There are three kinds of cash book:
Single column cashbook or simple cashbook.
Double column cashbook.
Treble column cashbook.
Define bank.
A bank may be defined as an institute, which purchases and sells money and transacts other financial business of like nature.
How many functions of bank are?
There are three functions of bank.
Primary functions    General functions     ?Agency functions
Define current account.
An account in which customer is allowed to deposit or withdraw the money as and when he likes. Usually banks do not allow interest on current account.
Define saving bank account (profit and loss sharing account)
An account in which deposits can be made only twice or trice a week, not exceeding a certain amount. Banks pay interest on these types of accounts.
What is a fixed deposit account?
An account in which certain amount is deposited for a fixed period. The amount can not be withdrawn before fixed time. The bank allows interest on fixed deposit.

Monday, 20 June 2011

English Grammar: The Use Of "Have to" and "Had to"

English Grammar: The Use Of "Have to" and "Had to"
Some time we have to tell others that speaker is doing a job in very compel so this situation can be express in English by using "has to" and "have to".
In English Grammar "has to" is used for the present and the "had to" is used for the past tense.
Structure: Affirmative
Sub + {has/have to + 1st form}+ Obj
I have to go to market for buying the eatable thing.
We have to chat by internet with my friends.
You have to invite your friends for the wedding.
He has to come in my birthday.

Structure: Negative

Sub + {has/have not to + 1st form}+ Obj
 People has not to work down to dusk for bread and butter.
We have not to toil for the job.
You have not to come in my house.
My friend has not to make a quarrel.
Usama Bin Laden has not to take pity any one.
Structure: Interrogative

Has/Have {sub + to 1st form } Object
Has the police to arrest the criminals for maintain the peace?
Have you to write an application for the holiday?
Have people to work down to dusk for livelihood?   
Has she to cook delicious food for the guests?

English Grammar: The Use Of "Had to"

 "Had to" is used in the past for the same as stated above.
Be continued ...............

Tuesday, 14 June 2011

English Grammar: The Uses of "May" and "Might"

English Grammar The Uses of "May" and "Might"
"May" and "Might" are used to denote permission, posibility, wish and purpose.
Note:.   "May" is used in the Present tense, whereas "Might" is used in the Past tense.
Subject + may/might + 1 form + Object
You may not leave this place.
He might not go home.
May I use your pen?
He may go to London for his study.
May you succeed in your business.
I have worked hard so that i might rise in life.
May God protect you.
It might have rained in Pakistan yesterday.
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Wednesday, 8 June 2011

Past Indefinite and Continuous Tense

Past Indefinite Tense
It indicates the passed tense without any condition.
Subject + {2nd form} + Object
He got ready to give me the debit.
We protested against the Govt. for not providing electricity.
They forgave me all my mistakes.
He operated the computer last night.
She took a cup of tea with me in the hotel.
  Sub + did not + 1st form + Obj

He did not get ready to give me the debit.
We did not protest against the Govt. for not providing electricity.
They did not forgive me all my mistakes.
He did not operate the computer last night.
She did not take a cup of tea with me in the hotel.
Did + Sub + 1st form + Obj
Did we make a conservation with her?
Did the police arrest the criminals red handed?
Did you learn past indefinite tense from
Did he leave for London last night?
Did she put the lamb chops in the broiler?
Past Continuous Tense
Past continuous tense indicates a job that was continue in the past.
Subject + {was/were + 1st form + ing}+ Object
They were cutting the crops.
She was climbing a tree.
People were getting money from the bank.
You were paying your bills regularly.
Johan was pretending to be a doctor.

Subject + {was/were not + 1st form + ing}+ Object
He was not abusing anyone.
I was not protecting my documents.
They were not hearing songs.
My brother was not watching T.V.
The headmaster was not punishing the students.
Was/were + subject + {1st form + ing} + Object
Was she accepting your invitation?
Were they going to visit a zoo last week?
Were the trying to over come the problems?
Was I making you understand?